Sahara Solar Breeder Foundation

Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB) Plan
directed toward global clean energy superhighway

Moderators (partial list):
H. Koinuma, H. Fujioka, K. Kurokawa, S. Yamaguchi, Y. Kitamura (Japan), S. Hannachi (Tunisia), A. Stambouli (Algeria)

Part 1, A briefing of SSB for Sahara new deal

Summary: Although attention to photovoltaic (PV) power generation by solar cell is rapidly growing in recent years, PV electricity is still far below the grid parity level in cost and 1 % share in energy supply. The most promising way to reach the ultimate solution of global energy and climate change is presumed to exist in the paradigm shift in the global energy production/transport system from the current fossil fuel/tanker base to the nature-dependent steady (renewable) energy/superconducting network base. In view of the world energy needs in future, potential solar photovoltaic capacity, and recent progress in high-Tc superconducting cable technology, Science Council of Japan proposed the "Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB)" plan at the G8+5 Academies' meeting in Rome (Mar. 2009) to provide the paradigm shift and to open the real sustainable energy age in the world [1]. The SSB plan contains the following core technologies to be developed and deployed.

1) Innovative solar Si production-solar breeder system design to make PV really grid parity

2) System design and materialization of PV interconnection to HTSC grids.

The dream of SSB plan is going to start the initial stage in "Sahara Solar Energy Research Center" (SSERC) project coordinated by The University of Tokyo (TU) and University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO) [2]. In addition to this basic research project (about a 5 M$ grant from JICA/JST for 2010-2015), a new scheme is indispensable to reinforce and extend this initial project to the next stage of making SSB dream come true. SSB foundation (SSBF) is proposed for the purpose of promoting the shift from SSERC academic research to an industrial and economic reality which would be beneficial for African countries [3].

Key technological (1-3) and social (4-6) components of SSB

1) Harnessing the 3rd value of the desert for energy: Large scale/low cost production of solar-grade silicon from desert sand.
2) Solar breeder: Construction of solar cell plant doubling its scale every energy payback time (1-2 years at present).
3) DC power transmission by HTSC cable: From test line to global network
4) Application of SSB: From local to all of Africa
5) Fostering human resources of science and technology in Africa: Not just technology transfer or money game, but joint R&D from the basic stage
6) SSB foundation to provide a scheme of high-tech industries, employment, and business opportunities in Africa

Initiative of SSB plan: Appendix

- SCJ proposal of SSB at G8+5 Academies' meeting 2009 in Rome (March, 2009)
Proposal text [1] attached with schematic illustration (Fig.1) and roadmap (Tab.1)
- IEA-PVPS's "Energy from the Desert" activity (since 1998) report edited by Prof. K. Kurokawa et al. [2] (Fig.2)
- Sahara initiative: SSERC project to start from 2010 by partial support of JICA/JST program on "Sci. & Tech. Res. Partnership for Sustainable Development".
- USTO model [3] (Fig.3)
- NEDO preliminary support for innovative solar silicon production (2010-)
Development of purification and direct carbothermic reduction of silica, the main component of desert sand and the most abundant natural resource (Fig.4)
- Research Center for high-Tc superconductor power transmission, Chubu University: (Fig.5)

Extension and International cooperation to make the SSB dream come true

- SSB foundation (SSBF) is established by sponsors of North Africa, Japan, and other areas to back up SSB plan from basic research stage to global business extension

Part-2, -Extension of SSB to the world: Solar-TAO (South America), Central Asia, China, US, Australia to complete the global clean energy superhighway


[1] H. Koinuma, I. Kanazawa, H. Karaki, K. Kitazawa: "SSB plan directed toward global clean energy superhighway", G8+5 Academies meeting (Rome, 2009)
[2] "Energy from the desert- III": IEA-PVPS Task-8 Report, ed. by K. Kurokawa et al., James & James Ltd., UK (2009)
[3] "Sahara Solar Energy Research Center" project: International collaborative research implemented under "the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development" (SATREPS*) promoted by JICA and JST in collaboration.]

Appendix: Total image of SSB with Table 1 and Fig.1 [1] and supplementary Figs. 2-5

Sahara solar breeder plan directed toward global clean energy superhighway

H. Koinuma, I. Kanazawa, H. Karaki, K. Kitazawa (Science Council of Japan)
(SCJ presentation text at G8+5 Academies' meeting in Rome (Mar. 26, 2009)

Science Council of Japan (SCJ) presents the above titled topics for proposing international collaborative R&D to treat the global energy and environment problems. This is a long-term plan ranging from basic research on solar photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices through the design and business plan for industrial production of solar cells to breed or amplify into a large scale solar power station. Also planned is R&D of dc electric transmission by high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) as a new technology for long distance low loss electric energy transmission.

Sahara desert and its vicinity is presumed to be appropriate site for this solar breeder construction, because the desert has a plenty of silica as primary material for silicon and of sun shine as solar energy source. Sahara solar breeder (SSB) is composed of two parts: solar grade Si production that should be started from basic research and Si solar cell manufacture plant that will be constructed and operated by bringing in raw materials and machines at the start-up. Starting from 2 MW scale in 2012, PV station is planned to grow up to 1GW in 20 years. In parallel to this PV factory, a transmission line using high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) wires is constructed to test the feasibility of long distance transmission of PV electricity generated by the solar breeder. Recent remarkable progress in HTSC wires (cooled by liquid N2) is making it possible to transmit large electric power with much less loss than by the current Cu wires.

Research Institute for SSB is established in Africa as the key station of SSB where the technical plan is designed and controlled so that smooth coupling of PV-HTSC fundamental research and industrial development could be achieved among project partners. Our goal is the global clean energy super highway connecting GW scale PV power stations located at various desert areas with HTSC transmission lines.

Tentative specification and roadmap of SSB plan are outlined as follows. Figure 1 illustrates Sahara solar breeder plan directed towards global clean energy super highway.

Initial specification of SSB

- 2 MW PV power plant to supply initial energy for Si and cell factory
- Si production and purification plant: 10 t/yr
- Solar cell plant : 1MW /yr. (2 yrs. EPT; poly-Si (+ Si film))
- HTSC transmission test station: 20 km long, Cryo-center for liq. N2
- Location: Edge of Sahara desert (Algeria and/or Egypt ?)
- Research Institute for SSB: USTO@Oran and/or E-JUST@Alexandria

Roadmap of Sahara Solar Breeder and Global Energy Superhighway
Year 2011 2020 2030 2040 - 2050
Check & Rev.
Master plan

Continental energy Hwy.
Global energy Hwy.

1st term
2->16MW PV
Si and cell factory
Feasibility study
2nd term
3rd term
Extension of SB
to continents
4th term
Extension of SB
to the world
Finance, etc.
International cooperation
SSB foundation
International cooperation
SSB foundation
Continental clean
Global clean

Fig. 1 Total image of Sahara solar breeder plan directed toward global clean energy superhighway

Fig 2. IEA-PVPS's "Energy from the Desert" activity (since 1998) report edited by Prof. K. Kurokawa et al.

Fig. 3 SSERC@USTO model and future image

Fig.4 -Si feed stock research area to be explored by innovative technology
Let's think how to scale up Si production as much as steel !

HTSC DC transmission test facility (left: Chubu Univ.)
and BSCCO in Ag tape (right: Sumitomo electric.)

carried by a bundle of tapes in a 40 mm φ pipe cooled with liq. N2:
Equivalent to 3 x 140 mm φ Cu cables stored in 2-3 m φ tunnel (pipeline)

Fig.5 Advanced superconducting cable (Right: Sumitomo electric Co.) and DC power transmission facility (Left: Yamaguchi et al. @Chubu Univ.)

SSB Plan for future of space ship "earth"
Back to Nature (Steady state of cosmic energy flow and natural resources)

- Shift of global energy system:
Fossil fuel / pipe line, tanker -> PV + HTSC Hwy.
(High-C, Energy wasting society )(Low-C, sustainable society)

- Shift of industrial structure
Material: Steel industry -> Silicon industry , Oxide-industry
    (Car)                            (Solar cell, HTSC application)

cf. Apollo project Super Apollo project
When 1961-1969 2011Inauguration of SSB age) - 2050
Why Space exploration, Military Future of earth, Clean energy
What Rocket, IT for control and measurement, Moon landing Si, PV, HTSC cable technologiesNew energy network

Concentration of human resources,
Money (22 B$ up)

Si chemistry, PV@ deserts, DC grid,
Money (?)
Where From earth to moon from Japan & Arab to the world
Who NASA in USA SCJ -> G8+α -> SSBF

Key Words
サハラ ソーラーブリーダー、鯉沼秀臣、Hideomi Koinuma、黒川浩助、Kosuke Kurokawa、藤岡洋、Hiroshi Fujioka、伊高健治、Kenji Itaka、古屋泰文、Yasubumi Furuya、角谷正友、Masatomo Sumiya、北村陽慈郎、Yojiro Kitamura、山口作太郎、Sataro Yamaguchi、河原敏男、Toshio Kawahara、上野晴樹、Haruki Ueno、松浦孝、Takashi Matsuura
、地球規模課題対応国際科学 技術協力事業、SATREPS、サスティナブル、リニューアブル、再生可能エネルギー、持続可能、NIMS、東京 大学、東京工業大学、弘前大学、中部大学、超伝導直流送電、サハラを起点とするソーラーブリーダー研究開発、物質・材料研究機構、国立情報学研究所、アル ジェリア、オラン科学技術大学、USTO、チュニジア、太陽光発電、シリコン、砂漠、Energy from the DesertAmine Boudghene Stambouli、ア ラブ経済研究所、Institute for Arab Economies Research, MENA, Africa

 化石燃 料の大量消費による資源枯渇と気候変動への影響が懸念される中、開発途上国の生活向上に伴うエネルギー需要増大への対策は不可欠である。
  本研究では、サハラをはじめとする不毛の砂漠をシリコン太陽電池の原料のシリカおよび日照の宝庫として活用し、ソーラーシリコンと太陽光発電所の増殖的 (ブリーダー)建設、およびアフリカにおける太陽光発電の有効活用、長距離低損失送電の可能性を実証する国際共同研究を開始する。具体的には、アルジェリ アのオラン科学技術大学に現地連携拠点「サハラ太陽エネルギー研究センター」を設置し、シリカと炭材の高純化技術の開発、ソーラー級シリコン新合成法の開 発と1t/年規模プラントの現地建設、センターを拠点とする新エネルギー工学に関 する人材育成などを行う。

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